Objective: To evaluate the perception of clinical dental and medical students towards Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of clinical medical and dental students. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of two sections; sociodemographic characteristics and perception of the respondents towards OSCE was used to garner data for the study. Data obtained was analysed using IBM SPSS version 21.0. The analysis was done using frequency distribution and cross tabulations. Chi square was used to test for level of significance. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
medical (79.8%) and dental (20.2%) students. Majority (98.4%) were aware that OSCE was a method of assessment. However only 28.1% correctly described OSCE. Majority (92.1%) were of the opinion that OSCEs are designed fairly while 88.9% felt OSCEs are properly organized. Less than half (43.9%) of the respondents opined that OSCEs are stress free. With regards to bias, 88.9% felt that OSCEs reduce bias related to type of clinical case while 85.4% claimed it reduces bias related to examiner. There was statistically significant association between school of respondent and perception that OSCE is stress free. There was statistically significant association between class of respondent and perception that OSCE reduces bias related to type of clinical case as well as bias related to examiner.
Conclusion: OSCE seems to be a valid and reliable assessment method among clinical medical and dental students. However, there is need to educate medical and dental students on what OSCE entails periodically before each examination.
Objective: To examine the association between oral health literacy and dental anxiety among dental outpatients.
Methods: This study was part of a larger oral health literacy cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending outpatient dental clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Data of interest were demographic characteristics, oral health literacy assessed using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry-30 (REALD-30), and dental anxiety assessed using Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS)..
Results: A total of 208 patients comprising male 130 (62.5%) and females 78 (37.5%) aged 16 to 60 years with mean age of 26.84±9.16 years formed the study population. The mean oral health literacy score and dental anxiety score was 22.44±6.94 (range 0-30) and 10.62±4.25 (range 0-25). The prevalence of dental anxiety was 35.6%. Oral health literacy was negatively correlated with dental anxiety (r=-0.045, P=0.522).
Conclusion: About one in every third patient in this study reported dental anxiety which was negatively correlated with oral health literacy. A boost in oral health literacy level will serve as dental anxiety reduction protocol.
Objective: Religiosity has been reported to contribute to psychological well-being. Psychological well-being has a significant influence on satisfaction of complete denture treatment among other factors. Satisfaction of complete denture results in improved self-efficacy. It is expected that there should be a significant association between religiosity and self-efficacy of denture treatment in complete denture wearer. The objective is to determine the association between religiosity and self-efficacy among complete denture wearer.
Methods: Participants wearing complete denture for a minimum period of 2 years were administered standardized psychological instrument (19 items) used to test for religiosity and 12 items for self-efficacy. A Likert scale of maximum score of 4 was used for each item. Data was gathered and analysed using IBM SPSS version 21. Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Spearman Correlation test was performed.
Results: Thirty participants were recruited but only 28 conformed to study protocol. Mean age was 62 ± 0.50 years, 18 (64.3%) participants were males while 10 (35.7%) were females. Religious affiliations of participants were either Christian (21; 75%) or Islamic religion (7; 25%). Median score of spirituality was 43.5 and denture self-efficacy was 30. Spearman rank correlation test to determine the relationship between spirituality and denture self -efficacy values showed a weak positive monotonic relationship (rs = 0.13, n = 28, p=0.40).
Conclusion: There is a weak positive association between religiosity and denture self-efficacy, which is not significant. Religiosity does not necessarily determine self - efficacy in denture wearers
Objective: Human bites in the maxillofacial region compromise function and aesthetics, resulting in social and psychological effects. The objective of the study was to assess reason for the injury, occurrence, reconstructive modalities and prognosis of human bite injuries in the maxillofacial region at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Yenagoa.
Methods: A retrospective study of patients with human bite injuries managed in the FMC, Yenagoa, from January 2012 to December 2018. Data collected were age, sex, site, timespan between injury and treatment, predisposing factors, treatment offered and outcome.
Results: Total of 46 patients, 13 (28.3%) males and 33 (71.7%) females aged between 12 and 52 years with human bite injuries in the maxillofacial region were seen and treated. 40 (87%) cases presented with uninfected wounds while 6 (13%) had infected wounds. The sites involved were lower lip 30 (65.2%), the nose 2 (4.3%), upper lip 13 (28.3%), while 1 (2.2%) affected the cheek. 9 (19.6%) of cases were from suspected infidelity in a relationship, 23 (50.2%) was related to domestic violence, 13 (28%) was due to fights while 1 (2.2%) was as a result of assault from a robber. Loco-regional flaps were used for reconstruction in 14 (30%) while simple V-shaped excision with primary closure was used in 32 (70%). However, infected wounds (3 cases) were treated by debridement, wound dressing and antibiotic regime before primary closure.
Conclusion: Most of the human bite injuries were due to social conflicts with intentions to deform. Restoration to acceptable aesthetics and function was achieved using local flaps and primary closure.
Objective: Dental caries as a public health concern affects people’s productivity and quality of life. A number of studies exist on caries status of children in Nigeria but same cannot be said for adults. In addition, majority of the few available studies on caries experience of adults in Nigeria have been conducted in urban locations. If scarce resources are to be appropriated efficiently, a broader picture of the rural and urban caries trend is crucial. The objective of this study was was to assess and compare the caries prevalence and experience of the adult population in a rural and urban local government area of Lagos State as well as determine factors affecting the caries experience of adults in two contrasting populations.
Methods: A descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 474 consenting adults aged 18-64 years in one rural and one urban local government area of Lagos State, in southwestern Nigeria. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee, Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Data was obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis, whilst p values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The majority of the respondents in this study were within the age brackets of 20-39 years, with a mean age of 36.4±36.1Dental Caries prevalence was 15.4% and 19.5%, with a mean DMFT of 0.72 and 0.62 in the rural and urban populations respectively. Also, the index of treatment need was 50.4% and 61.1% and index of treatment failure was 60.6% and 48.1% for the rural and urban populations respectively.
Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the dental caries experience between urban and rural populations. Notwithstanding the low caries experience, a lot of carious lesions remained untreated among rural and urban adult resident in Lagos. There is need for improved oral health promotion measures and preventive programs in rural and urban communities in Lagos State.
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a dental implant training programme on dental implant knowledge acquisition and retention among undergraduate dental students
Methods: A cross-sectional study of undergraduate final year students with data collected using a selfadministered questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, knowledge of dental implants, satisfaction and adequacy of implant education as well as interest in practicing implant dentistry. On the first day, the participants were given 20 minutes to complete the questionnaire to assess their baseline knowledge (L0). Then a series of lectures covering various aspects of implant dentistry was delivered to the participants. At the end of the lecture series, the participants were administered the same questionnaire (L1) to assess their knowledge acquisition. Three months later, the participants were administered the same questionnaire (L2), to assess their knowledge retention. The data so obtained was analysed using IBM SPSS version 21.0. Chi square test, ANOVA and Student’s T- test were performed.
Results: There was statistically significant difference in mean between L0 (5.53±2.816) and L1 (9.08±2.614) (3.55; p=0.001). There was increased satisfaction with the level of implant education received, level of interest and preparedness to practice implant dentistry from L0 to L1 with a decrease at L2.
Conclusion: The dental implant programme which consisted of only didactic lectures is an effective method of knowledge acquisition in implant dentistry but does not translate to equal knowledge retention. Therefore, more is needed to improve dental implant training at the undergraduate level.
Objective: To examine the association between oral health literacy, periodontal health knowledge, subjectively rated periodontal health status, oral selfcare behaviour and dental attendance.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Data were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires. Indices used were Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry-30 (REALD-30), index of periodontal health knowledge (PHK), index of subjectively rated periodontal status (SPS) and index for oral hygiene behaviour (OHB). Data were subjected to Chi square and binary regression statistics using the IBM SPSS version 21.0.
Results: A total number of 26 (12.5%) participants had poor subjectively rated periodontal health status, 55 (26.4%) had low periodontal health knowledge, 82 (39.4%) had poor oral self-care behaviour and 99 (47.6%) had never attended dental clinic. More of the participants with low oral health literacy had poor periodontal health status (p = 0.026; OR = 2.785, 95% CI = 1.129 – 6.873), low periodontal health knowledge (p = 0.021; OR = 2.192, 95% CI = 1.128 – 4.260), poor oral selfcare behaviour (p < 0.01; OR = 4.935, 95% CI = 2.592 – 9.394) and never visited the dentist (p = 0.590; OR = 1.174, 95% CI = 0.654 – 2.108) when compared to those with high oral health literacy.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that oral health literacy was a positive significant predictor of oral selfcare behaviour, periodontal health knowledge and status among the participants. Oral health promotion strategies directed at improving oral health literacy in adult populations will boost periodontal health knowledge, subjectively rated periodontal health status and oral self-care.
Objective To assess dental caries experience, oral hygiene status, periodontal disease, malocclusions and enamel hypoplasia in cleft children in Enugu.
Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study of cleft children attending in a Nigerian tertiary hospital, an apex Centre for cleft surgery. A pretested questionnaire was administered by the trained interviewers to record the demographic information. A trained examiner examined all the recruited children for caries, plaque, calculus, gingivitis, malocclusions and enamel hypoplasia, according to WHO guidelines. Data from the questionnaire and clinical examinations were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Version 20.
Results: A total of sixty-two patients affected with CL/P, between the age of 3 and 18 years old were included in the study. The mean age was 9.8years ± 11.20. There were 58.1% males (n = 36) and 41.9% females (n = 26). 48.4% (n = 30) children were affected with CL, 37.1% (n = 23) had CLP and 14.5% (n = 9) had CP. Most of them were unilateral cases, 64.5% (n = 40). The prevalence of dental caries in this study was 19.4%. The mean dental caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentition increased with age. Twenty children (32.3%) had good oral hygiene. The mean Oral Hygiene Index Score was 1.9. All the children examined had different degrees of gingival inflammation. 56 (90.3%) require oral hygiene instructions and oral prophylaxis. Enamel hypoplasia were minimal and affected all age groups. 90% of all the children examined had various forms of malocclusion.
Conclusion: The oral health status of cleft children in Enugu is poor. This underlines the need for a more vigorous approach to maintenance of good oral health amongst cleft patients, thereby preventing oral diseases.
Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease that affects all age groups. A patient with diabetes scheduled for surgery requires special care as diabetes has effects on anaesthesia and surgery; anaesthetic agents and techniques also has effects on diabetes. Close monitoring of the blood glucose is done pre, intra and postoperatively. This is a review article on anaesthesia and diabetes mellitus.